Windows Vista / Windows 7 Hibernation Note
On an MBR disk, Windows Vista and Windows 7 refuse to hibernate if the system volume is not marked as active in the partition table before booting Windows. However, in at least Windows 7, if the system volume's partition is changed to active and Disk Management -> Rescan Disks is used, hibernation will then work.
To work around this for MBR disks, you can use use the special partition index in altmbr.bin and let Windows believe that the system volume is active in the usual partition table field. altmbr.bin will boot the partition index you specify in its special field, regardless of the usual active flag field in the partition table entries.
Watch the name of your kernel
The single most common user error is setting up a kernel configuration which uses one of the reserved extensions:
none or other Linux kernel image .0 PXE bootstrap program (NBP) [PXELINUX only] .bin "CD boot sector" [ISOLINUX only] .bs Boot sector [SYSLINUX only] .bss Boot sector, DOS superblock will be patched in [SYSLINUX only] .c32 COM32 image (32-bit COMBOOT) .cbt COMBOOT image (not runnable from DOS) .com COMBOOT image (runnable from DOS) .img Disk image [ISOLINUX only]
Especially the .0 and .bin extension bites a lot of people:
- .0: as part of a version number: calling your kernel "redhat-9.0"
- .bin: Some tools that can be booted as a linux kernel come with this extension: memtest.bin, plpbt.bin, ...
It is unfortunate that there isn't a standard extension used for Linux kernels, and that none of the commonly loaded data formats (except perhaps COM32) have reliable magic numbers. If you want to name your kernel images something that will avoid confusion, I suggest using the extension .zi (zImage/bzImage).
To solve the issue:
- change/remove the extension
- use a more specific keyword than KERNEL. In most cases you will need the LINUX keyword. For other keywords see: SYSLINUX#KERNEL_file
Example with LINUX keyword instead of KERNEL:
LABEL with_0 LINUX redhat-9.0 LABEL with_bin LINUX memtest.bin
What's the real name of that file?
When using SYSLINUX or ISOLINUX, make sure that the real name of kernels and other files are the ones you actually specify.
The filename format often referred to as DOS 8.3 is defined as a filename of 1 to 8 characters, a dot ("."), and a filename extension 0 to 3 characters. The characters are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner and stored as uppercase. The dot may be omitted if the extension is 0 characters. The character set is restrictive within an 8-bit character set and include A-Z, 0-9, "_", and "~", among others. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8.3_filename for more details.
As of version 3.70, SYSLINUX can also understand VFAT filenames, with certain restrictions. VFAT filenames allow a FAT file system to store filenames that are not restricted to the normal DOS 8.3 format. Filenames are stored as UTF-16LE but must be translated to an 8-bit character to be usable.
Prior to SYSLINUX 3.70, the "real" name was the MS-DOS name, not a VFAT long filename. To verify the real name, you can mount your disk or disk image with, for example:
mount [-r] -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
The mount option " -t msdos " will prevent "long names" from showing up.
Note, in particular, that writing the filesystem with VFAT or UMSDOS enabled will produce very weird names unless they are already entered as valid 8.3 DOS filenames.
For ISOLINUX, the "real" name is the ISO 9660 filename, not a RockRidge or Joliet filename. The character set is A through Z, 0 through 9, "_", and "." with a limit of one "." per filename. To verify the real name, mount your CD-ROM or iso image with, for example:
mount -r -t iso9660 -o norock,nojoliet /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
The mount options " -t iso9660 -o norock,nojoliet " will prevent "long names" from showing up.
Please note that symbolic links are a RockRidge feature! You will find that if you mount your disk with " -o norock " that symbolic links show up as short files rather than as links. Therefore, you cannot reference symbolic links; however, hard links should work as expected.
If you are using mkisofs/genisoimage to generate files, there are options which reduce the amount of filename mangling:
mkisofs -allow-leading-dots -allow-multidot -l -relaxed-filenames -no-iso-translate ...
Without "-l", the filenames will be shortened to fit in an 8.3 format and may result in heavy alterations in order to make the name unique. With "-l", this may result in compatibility issues with DOS and make some files inaccessible (some versions of DOS might be alright with the names but results may vary). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9660#File_and_directory_name_restrictions for more information
If you've tried using the binaries included in your Linux distribution or compiling by hand but encountered an error, try the official pre-compiled binaries from the official distribution package (See Download). It's always recommended to try the latest available version. If you don't wish to try the latest one, you should at least try the official binaries from the same version equivalent to the distro's package. Often times, newer versions will have already addressed the issue you are experiencing and will also be one of the first recommendations given out if you're not using the current version.
If you cannot run the official installer binaries on your system, due to library differences, start by rebuiling only the installers:
make clean make installer
If you've compiled it by hand and encountered issues, there are several reasons to try the official binaries before thinking you have an issue.
- Your build system: It may be incomplete or be using a version of a package (compiler, etc) that may not interpret the source as well. NASM before 2.00 can not interpret certain extensions that were added in NASM 2.00 and Syslinux will fail to build from source at this point.
- Diagnosing: Everyone else will be able to obtain these exact same binaries in order to analyze and diagnose your issue. Many active users and developers always have the latest version on hand and won't need to wait for a download even. If there is a genuine issue, this aids in diagnosing it.
Modules, especially COM32 modules (.c32 files), should ideally come from the same package as the core binaries (isolinux.bin, ldlinux.sys, pxelinux.0; ldlinux.sys and extlinux.sys are installed by the syslinux, extlinux, syslinux.com, syslinux.exe and syslinux64.exe installer binaries) that you're using. Syslinux v4+ is strictly incompatible with older COM32 modules as the format has had a significant change (COM32 to COM32R), generating a "not a COM32R image" error. Also, COM32R modules will probably be incompatible with gPXE's native/builtin COMBOOT API.
When updating the Syslinux core binaries, it is highly advised that you also update all modules at the same time. Using tools like UNetBootIn counts as an update as many of these tools use the installer binaries (syslinux/extlinux) in the Linux distro you're using or integrate their own. These installers will often not match the versions used in the original images (like ISO files). Modules from 3.86 are generally known to be compatible with gPXE.
Version 5.00 and newer now require an additional module (ldlinux) be loaded before a config can be loaded/parsed, specifically ldlinux.c32 (BIOS), ldlinux.e32 (EFI32) or ldlinux.e64 (EFI64).
Modules also depend on library modules such as libcom32.c32, libutil.c32, libmenu.c32, libgpl.c32, and liblua.c32.
Version 6.00 now ships with binaries in a per-architecture directory prefix, ie core/pxelinux.0 is now found at bios/core/pxelinux.0. efi32/core/syslinux.efi is the EFI32 core binary. Module extensions also specify the architecture, .c32 (BIOS), .e32 (EFI32) and .e64 (EFI64).
Incorrect syntax in configuration files is another common error. If you aren't getting the menu or results you expect double check the syntax in your configuration file(s) is correct. There is also a way to add Web Browser Syntax Highlighting which will provide some syntax clue when viewing a configuration file in a browser.
Missing Operating System (mbr.bin)
Both the Syslinux and "standard" Master Boot Records will yield the message "Missing operating system." if none of the partitions in the partition table are marked as active. You can use DOS FDISK or fdisk under Linux to set the appropriate partition as active.
If your first partition is the one with the Syslinux boot-loader installed that you are expecting to boot, under Linux, you could possibly do something like:
$ fdisk /dev/sda Command (m for help): a Partition number (1-X): 1 Command (m for help): w
Missing OS (gptmbr.bin)
As stated above the MS-DOS mbr (mbr.bin) of Syslinux provides the "Missing Operating System" error message while the GPT mbr (gptmbr.bin) provides the "Missing OS" error message. In order to fix this problem, enable the bootflag on the boot partition (in many cases /dev/sda1). At time of writing, parted-2.3 does not seem to do this job like expected. Instead, use "sgdisk" to get this task done.
If your first partition is the one with the Syslinux boot-loader installed that you are expecting to boot, then under Linux, to set the boot flag one possibility could be:
sgdisk /dev/sda --attributes=1:set:2
To confirm everything went fine run:
sgdisk /dev/sda --attributes=1:show
This should output:
1:2:1 (legacy BIOS bootable)
PXE Calls in 4.00-4.03
pxechain.com started as the key to what the issue was. However there is a lot more affected. Any PXE call that loads something else and destroys PXELINUX will cause a crash. Please upgrade to the latest stable (or at least 4.04, released 2011-04-18). This also affects gpxecmd.c32 and sanboot.c32.
pxechain.com in 4.00 - 4.03 is broken. PXELINUX 4.04 solves this issue.
One workaround is to start with PXELINUX 3.86 (or less) and pxechain.com from the same package/package set to load your desired files.
A second partial and heavily manual workaround (if you're going to be using another PXELINUX) is to load the new PXELINUX file first (which then loads the existing config file), then use the CONFIG directive or config.c32 module to load the new config file and cwd (current working directory). This currently has been tested by one project contributor and worked to load a new PXELINUX, config file and cwd from another TFTP. This procedure can be done in 2 LABELS (examples in both styles; URL style requires PXELINUX 3.70+):
LABEL newpxe1 PXE tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/pxelinux.0 LABEL newcfg1 CONFIG tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/pxelinux.cfg/default APPEND tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/ LABEL newpxe2 PXE 192.168.1.3::pxe/pxelinux.0 LABEL newcfg2 CONFIG 192.168.1.3::pxe/pxelinux.cfg/default APPEND 192.168.1.3::pxe/
Equivalent command lines:
tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/pxelinux.0 tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/config.c32 tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/pxelinux.cfg/default tftp://192.168.1.3/pxe/ 192.168.1.3::pxe/pxelinux.0 192.168.1.3::pxe/config.c32 192.168.1.3::pxe/pxelinux.cfg/default 192.168.1.3::pxe/
Bad Heritage on MS DOS disk
The wiki prescribes to install SYSLINUX into a normal MS-DOS formatted disk. Depending on the history of your disk or pen drive, it might be "less normal" than needed. You will learn by SYSLINUX failing to boot properly.
This collection of proposals might help if a boot failure is related to unusual partitioning or filesystem format. One possible symptom for such problems can be successfully booting on one machine while failing on another.
Nevertheless, a failure to boot can have many other reasons.
Preparing a normal disk
This is a generic procedure to create a mainstream MS-DOS disk:
- Make sure to operate on the disk which you want to equip with SYSLINUX.
- Make a backup of the disk content. It will be gone after this procedure is done.
- Create a new DOS partition table by help of your favorite partitioning tool.
- Create a new partition.
- Set its "bootable" (or "active") flag.
- Format it to FAT16 or FAT32, preferrably with LBA addressing.
There is a tool included in SYSLINUX which shall ease the task of setting up such a disk (image):
Note carefully: You still need to identify the right disk address and to make your backup before running mkdiskimage !
Usage: mkdiskimage [-doFMz4][-i id] file c h s (max: 1024 256 63) -d add DOSEMU header -o print filesystem offset to stdout -F format partition as FAT32 -M parse "c" argument as megabytes; cylinders are calculated -z use zipdisk geometry (h=64 s=32) -4 use 4th partition entry (standard for zipdisks) -i specify the MBR ID -s output a sparse file (don't allocate all blocks)
It invokes mtools to do the actual formatting.
If the number "c" of cylinders is given as 0 (zero), then the program will calculate it from the storage capacity of the disk, depending on the size of the existing image file.
The run may last some time, because the whole resulting partition will be overwritten by 0-bytes before it gets formatted.
Linux examples for mkdiskimage
Create a zipdisk-like formatting with FAT32 on disk /dev/sdc with up to 1 GB capacity:
mkdiskimage -4 -z -F /dev/sdc
HDD-like formatting with FAT16 on disk /dev/sdc with up to 1 GB capacity:
mkdiskimage /dev/sdc 0 64 32
HDD-like formatting with FAT32 on disk /dev/sdd with more than 1 GB capacity:
mkdiskimage -F /dev/sdd 0 255 63
Create and format (FAT32) a regular file of 2000 MB as disk image:
offset=$(mkdiskimage -o -F -M my_disk.img 2000 255 63) echo "Offset for mount -o loop,offset= and for syslinux -t : $offset"
Examples for mkdiskimage on other operating systems (none yet)
(Please add them here.)
More details for experts
With persistent problems to boot USB connected pen drives see the section about USB related problems.