Difference between revisions of "EXTLINUX"

From Syslinux Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Wiki formatting. Minor rewording.)
 
(14 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
Hormone Replacement Nashville
+
EXTLINUX is a Syslinux variant which boots from a Linux filesystem.
  
There are several indications that could well show if [http://www.hrcmedical.com hormone replacement Nashville] could well be in your future. However, lot of people do not recognize that these are commonly indicators of lacking hormone levels. The bigger calamity is that lot of people don't recognize that there are things that are able to do to fight these problems.
+
EXTLINUX [[Filesystem|supports]]:<br />
 +
{{V|3.00+}}ext2/3,<br />
 +
{{V|4.00+}}FAT12/16/32, ext2/3/4, Btrfs,<br />
 +
{{V|4.06+}}FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs,<br />
 +
{{V|5.01+}}FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs, XFS,<br />
 +
{{V|6.03+}}FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs, XFS, UFS/FFS,<br />
  
  
 +
It works the same way as SYSLINUX, with a few slight modifications.
  
Do not allow on your own to be caught off guard. If you are experiencing any of these indicators underneath, you may would like to think of a reputable hormone replacement choice.
 
  
 +
1. The [[install]]er runs on a *'''mounted'''* filesystem.
 +
Run the extlinux installer on the directory in which you want EXTLINUX installed:
  
 +
extlinux --install /boot
  
1. Depression - Have you seen that you're feeling down recently, commonly for no evident reason? Do you at times think alone also when you're encompassed by great deals of people? Are you having difficulty to identify causes to get from bed in the early morning? If so, sadness is a likely opportunity.
+
Specify <tt>--install (-i)</tt> to install for the first time, or <tt>--update (-U)</tt> to upgrade a previous installation.
  
2. Impotence - Have your performance and stamina in the bed room been being short of as of late? Has your partner seemed to be reduced happy recently? hormone replacement Nashville procedure are able to address this too.
+
NOTE: This does not have to be the root directory of a filesystem.
 +
If "<tt>/boot</tt>" is a mount point of a supported filesystem, then you can do:
  
3. Weakness - It is very important to get a whole night's rest, and at times that is just a needed and not an adequate problem for emotion alert the next early morning. Often, economical levels of testosterone are to criticize, as these chemicals regulate an individual's drive dramatically.
+
mkdir -p /boot/extlinux
 +
extlinux --install /boot/extlinux
  
4. Loss of sexual desire - If you're just not eager or able to match your partner's sexual wishes, it may generate complications in the relationship.
+
... to create a subdirectory and install EXTLINUX in it.  
  
5. Evening sweats - Headaches typically aren't the only things that induce this anomaly. hormone replacement Nashville, think it or not, are able to aid with this as well.
 
  
6. Distressing intercourse - In many circumstances, people choose this to be an enjoyable experience, not an uncomfortable one. Distressing intercourse may suggest that hormone replacement is needed.
+
2. The [[config]]uration file is called "<tt>extlinux.conf</tt>", and is expected
 +
to be found in the same directory as EXTLINUX is installed in.
  
7. Amnesia - This is when it obtains hard to ... wait. What specifically was I supposed to be discussing right here.
+
Since v.4.02, <tt>syslinux.cfg</tt> and {{nowrap|<tt>[/boot/]syslinux/</tt>}} are generic terms and also valid for EXTLINUX.
 +
<tt>extlinux.conf</tt> and {{nowrap|<tt>[/boot/]extlinux/</tt>}} take precedence for EXTLINUX if they are present.
  
Body Aches - Does your body hurt all over for no good reason? If this was not the situation, at that point it could possibly just be simple old body twinges caused by a hormone disproportion.
 
  
9. Joint agony - Much like bodies twinges, therein there are parts of your body that are hurting. Because these areas have hinges they acquire their own name and an additional number on this listing.
+
3. Pathnames can be absolute or relative;
 +
if absolute (with a leading slash),  
 +
they are relative to the root of the filesystem on which EXTLINUX is installed (<tt>/boot</tt> in the example above);
 +
if relative,
 +
they are relative to the Current Working Directory -
 +
initially the EXTLINUX directory (where <tt>extlinux.conf</tt> - or the alternative <tt>syslinux.cfg</tt> - is located).
 +
<!-- See [[Configuration_location_and_name]] -->
  
 +
EXTLINUX supports subdirectories, but the total path length is limited to 255 characters.
  
  
Once more, if any of these points sound like indicators that you have actually been managing recently, it is very important to remember that these points can easily be looked after. There are therapies available, whether it's hormone replacement Nashville or otherwise, to help your body return to being its old self once more.
+
4. EXTLINUX supports symbolic links.
 +
However, extremely long symbolic links might hit the pathname limit.
 +
Also, please note that absolute symbolic links are interpreted from the root {{nowrap|*<u>of the filesystem</u>*}},
 +
which might be different from how the running system would interpret it (e.g. in the case of a separate <tt>/boot</tt> partition.)
 +
Therefore, use relative symbolic links if at all possible.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
5. EXTLINUX has "boot-once" support.
 +
The boot-once information is stored in an on-disk datastructure,
 +
part of ldlinux.sys,
 +
called the "''Auxillary Data Vector''".
 +
The Auxilliary Data Vector is also available to c32 modules that want to store small amounts of information.
 +
 
 +
To set the boot-once information:
 +
 
 +
extlinux --once 'command' /boot/extlinux
 +
 
 +
where "''command''" is any command you could enter at the Syslinux command line, preferably a label.
 +
The boot-once information will be executed on the next boot and then erased.
 +
 
 +
To clear the boot-once information:
 +
 
 +
extlinux --clear-once /boot/extlinux
 +
 
 +
If EXTLINUX is used on a RAID-1, this is recommended, since under certain circumstances a RAID-1 rebuild can "resurrect" the boot-once information otherwise.
 +
 
 +
To clear the entire Auxillary Data Vector:
 +
 
 +
extlinux --reset-adv /boot/extlinux
 +
 
 +
This will erase all data stored in the ADV, including boot-once.
 +
 
 +
The <tt>--once</tt>, <tt>--clear-once</tt>, and <tt>--reset-adv</tt> commands can be combined with {{nowrap|<tt>--install</tt>}} or {{nowrap|<tt>--update</tt>}}, if desired.
 +
The ADV is preserved across updates, unless {{nowrap|<tt>--reset-adv</tt>}} is specified.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Note that EXTLINUX installs in the filesystem partition like a well-behaved bootloader :).
 +
Thus, it needs a master boot record in the partition table;
 +
the [[Mbr|mbr.bin]] shipped with SYSLINUX should work well.
 +
To install it:
 +
 
 +
cat mbr.bin > /dev/XXX
 +
 
 +
... where ''/dev/XXX'' is the appropriate master device, e.g. /dev/hda,
 +
and make sure the correct partition is set as "active".
 +
 
 +
 
 +
If you have multiple disks in a software RAID configuration,
 +
the preferred way to boot is:
 +
 
 +
* Create a separate RAID-1 partition for /boot.
 +
:  Note that the Linux RAID-1 driver can span as many disks as you wish.
 +
 
 +
* Install the MBR on *<u>each disk</u>*, and mark the RAID-1 partition as "active".
 +
 
 +
* Run {{nowrap|"<code>extlinux --raid --install /boot</code>"}} to install EXTLINUX.
 +
:  This will install it on all the drives in the RAID-1 set, which means you can boot any combination of drives in any order.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
It is not required to re-run the extlinux installer after installing new kernels.
 +
If you are using ext3 journalling, however, it might be desirable to do so, since running the extlinux installer will flush the log.
 +
Otherwise a dirty shutdown could cause some of the new kernel image to still be in the log.
 +
This is a general problem for boot loaders on journalling filesystems; it is not specific to EXTLINUX.
 +
The "sync" command does not flush the log on the ext3 filesystem.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The Syslinux Project boot loaders support chain loading other operating systems via a separate module, [[Comboot/chain.c32|chain.c32]].
 +
To use it, specify a LABEL in the configuration file with KERNEL chain.c32 and APPEND [hd|fd]<number> [<partition>].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For example:
 +
<pre>
 +
# Windows CE/ME/NT, a very dense operating system.
 +
# Second partition (2) on the first hard disk (hd0);
 +
# Linux would *typically* call this /dev/hda2 or /dev/sda2.
 +
LABEL cement
 +
  KERNEL chain.c32
 +
  APPEND hd0 2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
See also [[Comboot/menu.c32]].

Latest revision as of 21:08, 31 March 2017

EXTLINUX is a Syslinux variant which boots from a Linux filesystem.

EXTLINUX supports:
[3.00+] ext2/3,
[4.00+] FAT12/16/32, ext2/3/4, Btrfs,
[4.06+] FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs,
[5.01+] FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs, XFS,
[6.03+] FAT12/16/32, NTFS, ext2/3/4, Btrfs, XFS, UFS/FFS,


It works the same way as SYSLINUX, with a few slight modifications.


1. The installer runs on a *mounted* filesystem. Run the extlinux installer on the directory in which you want EXTLINUX installed:

extlinux --install /boot 

Specify --install (-i) to install for the first time, or --update (-U) to upgrade a previous installation.

NOTE: This does not have to be the root directory of a filesystem. If "/boot" is a mount point of a supported filesystem, then you can do:

mkdir -p /boot/extlinux
extlinux --install /boot/extlinux

... to create a subdirectory and install EXTLINUX in it.


2. The configuration file is called "extlinux.conf", and is expected to be found in the same directory as EXTLINUX is installed in.

Since v.4.02, syslinux.cfg and [/boot/]syslinux/ are generic terms and also valid for EXTLINUX. extlinux.conf and [/boot/]extlinux/ take precedence for EXTLINUX if they are present.


3. Pathnames can be absolute or relative; if absolute (with a leading slash), they are relative to the root of the filesystem on which EXTLINUX is installed (/boot in the example above); if relative, they are relative to the Current Working Directory - initially the EXTLINUX directory (where extlinux.conf - or the alternative syslinux.cfg - is located).

EXTLINUX supports subdirectories, but the total path length is limited to 255 characters.


4. EXTLINUX supports symbolic links. However, extremely long symbolic links might hit the pathname limit. Also, please note that absolute symbolic links are interpreted from the root *of the filesystem*, which might be different from how the running system would interpret it (e.g. in the case of a separate /boot partition.) Therefore, use relative symbolic links if at all possible.


5. EXTLINUX has "boot-once" support. The boot-once information is stored in an on-disk datastructure, part of ldlinux.sys, called the "Auxillary Data Vector". The Auxilliary Data Vector is also available to c32 modules that want to store small amounts of information.

To set the boot-once information:

extlinux --once 'command' /boot/extlinux

where "command" is any command you could enter at the Syslinux command line, preferably a label. The boot-once information will be executed on the next boot and then erased.

To clear the boot-once information:

extlinux --clear-once /boot/extlinux

If EXTLINUX is used on a RAID-1, this is recommended, since under certain circumstances a RAID-1 rebuild can "resurrect" the boot-once information otherwise.

To clear the entire Auxillary Data Vector:

extlinux --reset-adv /boot/extlinux

This will erase all data stored in the ADV, including boot-once.

The --once, --clear-once, and --reset-adv commands can be combined with --install or --update, if desired. The ADV is preserved across updates, unless --reset-adv is specified.


Note that EXTLINUX installs in the filesystem partition like a well-behaved bootloader :). Thus, it needs a master boot record in the partition table; the mbr.bin shipped with SYSLINUX should work well. To install it:

cat mbr.bin > /dev/XXX

... where /dev/XXX is the appropriate master device, e.g. /dev/hda, and make sure the correct partition is set as "active".


If you have multiple disks in a software RAID configuration, the preferred way to boot is:

  • Create a separate RAID-1 partition for /boot.
Note that the Linux RAID-1 driver can span as many disks as you wish.
  • Install the MBR on *each disk*, and mark the RAID-1 partition as "active".
  • Run "extlinux --raid --install /boot" to install EXTLINUX.
This will install it on all the drives in the RAID-1 set, which means you can boot any combination of drives in any order.


It is not required to re-run the extlinux installer after installing new kernels. If you are using ext3 journalling, however, it might be desirable to do so, since running the extlinux installer will flush the log. Otherwise a dirty shutdown could cause some of the new kernel image to still be in the log. This is a general problem for boot loaders on journalling filesystems; it is not specific to EXTLINUX. The "sync" command does not flush the log on the ext3 filesystem.


The Syslinux Project boot loaders support chain loading other operating systems via a separate module, chain.c32. To use it, specify a LABEL in the configuration file with KERNEL chain.c32 and APPEND [hd|fd]<number> [<partition>].


For example:

 # Windows CE/ME/NT, a very dense operating system.
 # Second partition (2) on the first hard disk (hd0);
 # Linux would *typically* call this /dev/hda2 or /dev/sda2.
 LABEL cement
  KERNEL chain.c32
  APPEND hd0 2

See also Comboot/menu.c32.